xū (虛)

often juxtaposed in both classical and modern Chinese medicine by shí (實), though with somewhat different significance, as in Língshū 52.2.4; this pair — xū (虛) and shí (實) is often translated as “deficient” and “excess;” however, xū (虛) literally means “hollow, unreal, empty, or insubstantial;” in Língshū 52.6, xū (虛) is juxtaposed with chéng (盛), which means “abundant, plentiful, or flourishing.”

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